© Heinz Schoon 2017
The Travel
Preparations for emigration began on a grand scale in 1817. Emigrant “harmonies" were formed, led by an elected eldest. These elders preached, baptized, administered the last sacraments, performed weddings and other ecclesiastical acts. At the same time, they were also responsible for the joint fund. The wealthy emigrants gave 10% of their wealth to finance the trip for the poorer emigrants. There were also harmonies in which the community of goods practiced by paying all their assets into the common treasury. My ancestors belonged to Plattenhardter Harmonie under the direction of Adam Boepple and came from Plieningen near Stuttgart. At the end of 1816, the first harmonies were granted permission to leave the country. For this purpose, passports had to be obtained from the Russian government. Two hundred and fifty families applied to the envoy of the Russian Empire in Stuttgart for an entry permit. Applicants were informed of the essential provisions of entry: 1.) Everyone must have a testimony of local authority that he is a good landlord and has complied with the laws of the country. 2.) Everyone must provide a surety that he or she owns at least 300 guilders. 3.) Everyone must declare in writing to waive any advance payment or compensation The Württemberg government tried to influence the people who wanted to leave in order to dissuade them from their plans - which of course was not successful. At the end of April 1817, the Russian embassy in Stuttgart declared that it was not authorized to issue passports. Another solution had to be found. Two delegates were sent to Vienna to obtain an entry permit at the Russian embassy, which was ultimately successful. When they returned, a letter had also arrived from St Petersburg stating that there were no objections to immigration, but that the Russian government had to have a guarantee that Russia would not incur any particular financial burdens as a result of emigration. On 10 May 1817, the passports were handed over to those who wanted to leave the country. In the meantime, agreements had already been made with the shipping company in Ulm to transport passengers. The emigration was divided into 14 columns because not all of them could be transported at the same time. On 20 May 1817, the first ethnic German immigrants left the city of Ulm on the "Ulmer Schachteln" (Zille). One harmony was embarked each week in Ulm. The last harmony left Ulm in August 1817. The trip went on until Vienna without any incidents. The groups had to switch to other ships there. The Russian envoy in Vienna recommended that the travel groups take the overland route via Galicia to Odessa. Unfortunately, this recommendation was not accepted. The first difficulties emerged shortly after Vienna. The ships were overloaded, which led to the first friction among the travellers. Financial irregularities occurred and the travel fund was stolen in two harmonies. The travellers were also blackmailed by the authorities during the trip and the food situation deteriorated due to a lack of funds. In Bucharest, the first emigrants had to ask the Russian embassy for an advance to be able to pay their travel expenses. First participants left the groups to work for Hungarian and Moldavian landowners. The painful constriction, the change of heat, cold and rain as well as unclean drinking water from the Danube caused the first illnesses and deaths. Upon their arrival in Ishmael, the Russian government quarantined the new arrivals to prevent disease from entering the Russian Empire. The travellers were assigned an island in the Danube where they had to stay for several weeks. This rest area was not prepared and therefore completely unsuitable for people to camp outdoors. The government distributed food, but it was not enough for a sufficient diet. Therefore the emigrants had to sell parts of their belongings in order to be able to buy food. According to unconfirmed reports, more than 1200 people died during the trip. After the quarantine was lifted and the journey continued, 98 families decided to accept the offer of the Russian government and settle nearby in the Bessarabia region. They gave up their plan to move to the Caucasus. These ninety-eight families were settled about 80 km from Ismael in Colony No. 12 in the valley of the river Kogaelnik. This colony was later given the name Teplitz. The rest of the groups continued their journey to the Caucasus. As we know, the"Millennial Kingdom" - the resurrection of Christ, did not begin in 1836.
Chiliastische Werbung „Eilt nach Osten zu dem neuen Jerusalem. Gott hat Alexander erwählt um Zion zu verteidigen und seiner Braut, der Kirche, eine sichere Stätte zu bereiten.“ „Von Osten scheint die Sonne. Da ist der Zufluchtsort. Dort erwarten uns Freud und Wonne, daher eilt ein Christ nach dort.“
Ulmer Schachtel
© Heinz Schoon 2017
The Travel
Preparations for emigration began on a grand scale in 1817. Emigrant “harmonies" were formed, led by an elected eldest. These elders preached, baptized, administered the last sacraments, performed weddings and other ecclesiastical acts. At the same time, they were also responsible for the joint fund. The wealthy emigrants gave 10% of their wealth to finance the trip for the poorer emigrants. There were also harmonies in which the community of goods practiced by paying all their assets into the common treasury. My ancestors belonged to Plattenhardter Harmonie under the direction of Adam Boepple and came from Plieningen near Stuttgart. At the end of 1816, the first harmonies were granted permission to leave the country. For this purpose, passports had to be obtained from the Russian government. Two hundred and fifty families applied to the envoy of the Russian Empire in Stuttgart for an entry permit. Applicants were informed of the essential provisions of entry: 1.) Everyone must have a testimony of local authority that he is a good landlord and has complied with the laws of the country. 2.) Everyone must provide a surety that he or she owns at least 300 guilders. 3.) Everyone must declare in writing to waive any advance payment or compensation The Württemberg government tried to influence the people who wanted to leave in order to dissuade them from their plans - which of course was not successful. At the end of April 1817, the Russian embassy in Stuttgart declared that it was not authorized to issue passports. Another solution had to be found. Two delegates were sent to Vienna to obtain an entry permit at the Russian embassy, which was ultimately successful. When they returned, a letter had also arrived from St Petersburg stating that there were no objections to immigration, but that the Russian government had to have a guarantee that Russia would not incur any particular financial burdens as a result of emigration. On 10 May 1817, the passports were handed over to those who wanted to leave the country. In the meantime, agreements had already been made with the shipping company in Ulm to transport passengers. The emigration was divided into 14 columns because not all of them could be transported at the same time. On 20 May 1817, the first ethnic German immigrants left the city of Ulm on the "Ulmer Schachteln" (Zille). One harmony was embarked each week in Ulm. The last harmony left Ulm in August 1817. The trip went on until Vienna without any incidents. The groups had to switch to other ships there. The Russian envoy in Vienna recommended that the travel groups take the overland route via Galicia to Odessa. Unfortunately, this recommendation was not accepted. The first difficulties emerged shortly after Vienna. The ships were overloaded, which led to the first friction among the travellers. Financial irregularities occurred and the travel fund was stolen in two harmonies. The travellers were also blackmailed by the authorities during the trip and the food situation deteriorated due to a lack of funds. In Bucharest, the first emigrants had to ask the Russian embassy for an advance to be able to pay their travel expenses. First participants left the groups to work for Hungarian and Moldavian landowners. The painful constriction, the change of heat, cold and rain as well as unclean drinking water from the Danube caused the first illnesses and deaths. Upon their arrival in Ishmael, the Russian government quarantined the new arrivals to prevent disease from entering the Russian Empire. The travellers were assigned an island in the Danube where they had to stay for several weeks. This rest area was not prepared and therefore completely unsuitable for people to camp outdoors. The government distributed food, but it was not enough for a sufficient diet. Therefore the emigrants had to sell parts of their belongings in order to be able to buy food. According to unconfirmed reports, more than 1200 people died during the trip. After the quarantine was lifted and the journey continued, 98 families decided to accept the offer of the Russian government and settle nearby in the Bessarabia region. They gave up their plan to move to the Caucasus. These ninety-eight families were settled about 80 km from Ismael in Colony No. 12 in the valley of the river Kogaelnik. This colony was later given the name Teplitz. The rest of the groups continued their journey to the Caucasus. As we know, the"Millennial Kingdom" - the resurrection of Christ, did not begin in 1836.
Ulmer Schachtel